Vegan & Bitki Bazl─▒ Diyetler: En s─▒k sorulan 5 soru

Son y─▒llarda, veganizm veya bitki bazl─▒ diyetler d├╝nya ├žap─▒nda giderek daha pop├╝ler hale geldi. Peki bu diyetler nelerdir? Faydalar─▒ veya alg─▒lanan riskleri nelerdir? ─░┼čte bu konuyla ilgili en s─▒k sorulan sorulardan baz─▒lar─▒.

1. Vegan, bitki bazl─▒ ve vejeteryan diyetleri ne anlama geliyor?

Veganizm, ama├ž ne olursa olsun hayvanlar─▒n s├Âm├╝r├╝s├╝ne hi├žbir alanda dahil olmamay─▒ ama├žlayan bir ya┼čam felsefesini tan─▒mlar. ├ľrne─čin vegan olan bir ki┼či, hi├žbir hayvan─▒n etini ya da s├╝t├╝n├╝ ve yumurtas─▒n─▒ veya bunlardan yap─▒lan ├╝r├╝nleri yemez.

Bitki bazl─▒ diyet ile vegan diyet genellikle birbirinin yerine kullan─▒l─▒r. T├╝m veganlar bitki bazl─▒ beslenir ancak t├╝m bitki bazl─▒ beslenen bireyler vegan de─čildir. Buradaki fark ama├žt─▒r. Veganlar etik nedenlerle hayvansal g─▒dalardan ka├ž─▒n─▒rken, bitki temelli diyet uygulayan insanlar genellikle sa─čl─▒k nedenleriyle motive olurlar.

Bir vejetaryen, hayvan eti yemekten ka├ž─▒n─▒r, ancak yumurta ve s├╝t gibi di─čer hayvansal g─▒dalar─▒ t├╝ketmeyi se├žer. Diyetlerine dahil ettikleri g─▒dalara g├Âre farkl─▒ vejetaryenlik t├╝rleri bulunmaktad─▒r.

2. Vegan beslenme sa─čl─▒kl─▒ m─▒?

Tabii do─čru yap─▒l─▒rsa! Vegan bir diyet, i┼členmi┼č g─▒dalara dayan─▒yorsa, ├že┼čitlilikten yoksunsa ve baklagiller gibi i┼členmemi┼č g─▒da gruplar─▒n─▒ atl─▒yorsa sa─čl─▒kl─▒ olmayacakt─▒r. Sa─čl─▒kl─▒ bir vegan diyet, ÔÇťPower PlateÔÇŁde g├Âsterildi─či gibi i┼členmemi┼č, bitki bazl─▒ g─▒dalara dayanan bir diyettir.

D├╝nyadaki en b├╝y├╝k diyetetik dernekleri (Amerikan ve ─░ngiliz), sa─čl─▒kl─▒ ve iyi planlanm─▒┼č bitki bazl─▒ veya vegan bir diyetin ya┼čam─▒n t├╝m a┼čamalar─▒nda beslenme a├ž─▒s─▒ndan yeterli olmas─▒n─▒n yan─▒ s─▒ra, ayn─▒ zamanda baz─▒ hastal─▒klar─▒n ├Ân├╝ne ge├žme ve tedavisinde de sa─čl─▒k yararlar─▒ sundu─čunu resmi olarak a├ž─▒klad─▒.

3. Vegan diyet kronik hastal─▒k riskini azaltabilir mi?

Evet. Kalp hastal─▒─č─▒, tip 2 diyabet ve kanser gibi kronik hastal─▒klar─▒n d├╝nya ├žap─▒nda salg─▒n d├╝zeylerde olmas─▒n─▒n temel nedeni uygulanan diyettir- ├žok fazla hayvansal g─▒da ve i┼členmi┼č g─▒dalar─▒ i├žeren ancak yeterli miktarda i┼členmemi┼č, bitki bazl─▒ g─▒dalar─▒ i├žermeyen diyetler. Bu bilgi, tan─▒nm─▒┼č Lancet dergisindeki 2019 ara┼čt─▒rmas─▒nda yer al─▒yor.

4. ─░htiyac─▒m olan t├╝m besinleri vegan diyet ile alabilir miyim?

T├╝m besin gereksinimleri vegan/%100 bitki bazl─▒ bir diyetle kar┼č─▒lanabilir, ├Ârne─čin:

  • Protein: baklagiller, tam tah─▒llar, kabuklu yemi┼čler ve ├žekirdeklerde bulunur.
  • Demir: tam tah─▒llar, baklagiller, koyu yaprakl─▒ ye┼čillikler, kuru meyveler, f─▒nd─▒k ve ├žekirdeklerde bulunur.
  • B12 Vitamini: Takviye gerektirir. B12’nin temel kayna─č─▒ topraktaki mikroorganizmalar oldu─čundan, ya┼čad─▒─č─▒m─▒z modern, s─▒hhi d├╝nyada takviyeler ile diyetimize dahil edebiliriz. Vegan olmayanlar─▒n ├žo─ču da B12 takviyesine ihtiya├ž duymaktad─▒r.
  • D Vitamini: En iyi kayna─č─▒ g├╝ne┼čtir. G├╝ne┼č ─▒┼č─▒─č─▒na eri┼čimimiz olmad─▒─č─▒nda takviye gerekebilir. Ayn─▒ ┼čey vegan olmayanlar i├žin de ge├žerlidir.

5. Veganl─▒k sadece bir trend mi?

Hay─▒r. D├╝nya, kronik ve viral hastal─▒klar ve iklim de─či┼čikli─či gibi b├╝y├╝k sa─čl─▒k ve ├ževre sorunlar─▒yla u─čra┼č─▒yor. Bu problemlere bir ├ž├Âz├╝m gerekiyor ve bunlardan biri, d├╝nya ├žap─▒nda daha fazla bitki bazl─▒ yani insan evriminin temeli olan g─▒dalara ge├ži┼čtir. Ya hep ya hi├ž demek zorunda de─čiliz. Diyetimize daha fazla i┼členmemi┼č, bitki bazl─▒ g─▒dalar ekleyerek, hem ├ževremize hem de ├ževremizdeki t├╝m canl─▒lara fayda sa─člarken sa─čl─▒─č─▒m─▒z─▒ iyile┼čtirebiliriz.

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Yazar biyografisi

Didem Varol, Kay─▒tl─▒ bir Diyetisyendir ve bu nedenle Ontario Diyetisyenler Koleji’ne kay─▒tl─▒d─▒r. Kanada, Montreal’deki McGill ├ťniversitesi’nden mezun oldu. Halen ─░stanbul’da ya┼č─▒yor ve kendi ├Âzel muayenehanesi olan Plantgevity Nutrition Solutions’─▒ y├Ânetiyor. Bundan ├Ânce, kronik hastal─▒klar─▒n ├Ânlenmesi alan─▒nda Halk Sa─čl─▒─č─▒ Diyetisyeni olarak Toronto Halk Sa─čl─▒─č─▒nda yakla┼č─▒k 10 y─▒l ├žal─▒┼čt─▒. T. Colin Campbell Center for Nutrition Studies & eCornell’den Bitki Bazl─▒ Beslenme Sertifikas─▒ alm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ayn─▒ zamanda Doktorlar Sorumlu T─▒p Komitesi taraf─▒ndan geli┼čtirilen kan─▒ta dayal─▒ beslenme ve pi┼čirme program─▒ olan ÔÇťYa┼čam ─░├žin G─▒daÔÇŁ E─čitmenidir.

Vegan & Plant-Based Diets: Top 5 Questions

In recent years, veganism or plant-based diets have steadily become more popular around the world. What are these diets and what are the benefits or perceived risks? Here are some of the most commonly asked questions on this topic.

1. What do vegan, plant-based and vegetarian diets mean? 

Veganism describes a philosophy of life which aims to exclude all forms of exploitation of animals for any purpose. For example, someone who is vegan will not eat any animal flesh nor products made by animals such as milk and eggs.

A plant-based diet is often used interchangeably with a vegan diet. All vegans are plant-based but not all plant-based eaters are vegan. The difference is purpose. Vegans avoid animal foods for ethical reasons, while people who follow a plant-based diet are usually motivated by health reasons.

A vegetarian avoids eating animal flesh but choose to consume other animal-based foods such as eggs and dairy. There are different types of vegetarianism based on the foods they include in their diet.

2. Is a vegan diet healthy?

Of course, if done right! A vegan diet is not going to be healthy if it relies on processed foods, lacks variety, and omits whole food groups such as beans. A healthy vegan diet is one that is based on whole, plant-based foods, as shown in the ÔÇťPower PlateÔÇŁ.

The largest dietetic associations (American and British) in the world have officially stated that a healthy and well-planned plant-based or vegan diet is not only nutritionally adequate at all stages of life, but also offers health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.

3. Can vegan diets reduce the risk for chronic diseases? 

Yes. The main reason chronic diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer are at epidemic levels worldwide is due to diet ÔÇô too much animal-based foods and processed foods and not enough whole (unrefined), plant-based foods. This comes from a 2019 study in the prestigious Lancet journal.

4. Can I get all the nutrients I need on a vegan diet? 

All nutrient requirements can be met on a vegan/100% plant-based diet, for example:

  • Protein: found in beans, whole grains, nuts, and seeds.
  • Iron: found in whole grains, beans, dark leafy greens, dried fruits, nuts, and seeds.
  • Vitamin B12: require a supplement. This is due to the modern, sanitary world in which we live since the fundamental source of this nutrient are micro-organisms in the soil. Many non-vegans also require a supplement.
  • Vitamin D: the best source is the sun. In its absence, a supplement may be required. The same is true for non-vegans.

5. Is veganism simply a trend? 

No. The world is dealing with massive health and environmental problems, such as chronic and viral diseases and climate change. These challenges require solutions and one of them is a worldwide shift to more plant-based foods, the very foods that have been the basis of human evolution. It does not have to be all or nothing. Just by adding more whole, plant-based foods to our diet, we can improve our health while also benefiting the environment and all living beings in it.

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Writer bio

Didem Varol is a Registered Dietitian and, as such, is registered with the College of Dietitians of Ontario. She is a graduate from McGill University in Montreal, Canada. She currently lives in Istanbul and runs her own private practice, Plantgevity Nutrition Solutions. Prior to that, she spent almost 10 years working at Toronto Public Health, as a Public Health Dietitian in the field of chronic disease prevention. She has completed a Plant-Based Nutrition Certificate from the T. Colin Campbell Center for Nutrition Studies & eCornell. She is also a ÔÇťFood For LifeÔÇŁ Instructor, which is an evidence-based nutrition and cooking program developed by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

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